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ScholarSpace Glossary
University of Hawaii at Manoa Library

Abstract - A statement summarizing the important points of a text

Administrator - An authorized staff member from your department or the ScholarSpace Team. All submissions ingested arrive in the administrator's inbox for review. Using the approver interface, collection administrators can edit, approve, or reject depositor submissions. The administrator may also return records to depositors for additional editing. This process is referred to as "workflow."

Archiving - Preserves the scholarly record over time.

Bitstream - Refers to a stream of bits transmitted over a communications line between two devices. A bit is the smallest element of information in the digital system. Items are ingested into ScholarSpace as bitstreams.

Born-Digital - An item is born-digital if it has been generated entirely electronically. It does not, or cannot, have a print version. Items not born digital can be accepted into the repository, but please see recommendations on creating an archival pdf version of the document here, or contact ScholarSpace for more information.

Dspace - DSpace is a digital library platform made to store, index and archive a university's research. Dspace was developed jointly by HP Labs and MIT Libraries. The platform is being used in over 50 countries.

Deposit - A deposit represents a bundle of submitted information. Typically, a deposit consists of descriptive metadata, access conditions and copyright information, and any relevant uploaded files. This entire set of saved information is the deposit record.

Digital Preservation - The process of ensuring that a digital object is accessible over the long term.

Digital Repository - An online, searchable, web-accessible database containing works of research deposited by scholars, professional staff, Ph.D's and students. The purpose is both increased access to scholarship and long-term preservation. Digital repositories are often built to serve a specific institution's community of users, in which cases they are called institutional repositories, such as ScholarSpace (University of Hawaii's Repository) and UMER (University of Melbourne Eprints Repositories). There are also discipline-specific digital repositories, like arXiv (http://arxiv.org/). Most digital repositories may be searched together via OAIster.

DOAJ - http://www.doaj.org/ The Directory of Open Access Journals, an online database listing "free, full text, quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals."

Draft - A deposit that has been saved but not yet submitted.

DRIVER - Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research

"Considered the largest initiative of its kind in helping to enhance repository development worldwide, DRIVER is a multi-phase effort whose vision and primary objective is to create a cohesive, robust and flexible, pan-European infrastructure for digital repositories, offering sophisticated services and functionalities for researchers, administrators and the general public." http://www.driver-repository.eu/

Eprint - Any version of a work available online which has been either submitted for formal publication or has been accepted after formal review. The term encompasses both preprint and postprint.

E-thesis (ETD) - An electronic thesis or dissertation. Although it can be used to mean any thesis represented electronically, it is especially intended for born-digital theses. A thesis not born digital may be accepted into the repository. Please contact ScholarSpace for further information.

FAQ - Frequently asked questions.

Handle - A persistent URL that points to an item. Each Scholarspace submission (deposit) will be assigned a unique handle.

HTML - Hypertext markup language. This is a typical user interface language used on the web. It is used to mark-up plain text for display in a user's browser. Items in HTML can be deposited into the repository.

Ingesting - Submitting works to the digital repository.

Institutional Repository - A type of digital repository that is designed to collect the work of a particular institution (usually a university), as opposed to a disciplinary repository like arXiv.org. ScholarSpace is the institutional repository of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. *See "digital repository" above.

A public on-line server where an institution or community stores its intellectual output in digital format, especially its research production.

"...a set of services that a university offers to the members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution and its community members. It is most essentially an organizational commitment to the stewardship of these digital materials, including long-term preservation where appropriate, as well as organization and access or distribution." Clifford Lynch, Institutional Repositories: Essential Infrastructure for Scholarship in the Digital Age, (http://www.arl.org/resources/pubs/br/br226/br226ir.shtml)

Keywords - Search terms or phrases relating to the item/body of work. Keywords may be assigned to a submission by the submitter/depositor, the metadata editor, or the collection administrator.

Metadata - Data that describes other data. For items in open access repositories, this usually consists of a full bibliographic reference, abstract, keywords, and similar information.

OAI (Open Archives Initiative) - The OAI develops and promotes interoperability standards that aim to facilitate the efficient dissemination of content. Its major contribution is the OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) , a set of guidelines that enable repositories to expose the metadata describing their content to service providers who harvest the metadata into large aggregations (see OAIster, below). Intended to expose the work deposited in repositories to the widest possible audience and ensure the interoperability of repositories. Note: do not confuse OAI with OA (open access).

OAIster - The goal of OAIster is to create a collection of freely available, previously difficult-to-access, academically-oriented digital resources (digital repositories) that are easily searchable by anyone. It is a searchable aggregation of the descriptive content (metadata) from hundreds of digital repositories that uses the OAI protocol to aggregate the metadata.

Open Access - The scholarly communication reform movement that aims to make scholarly literature freely available on the public web. An umbrella term, open access includes both open access journal publishing and author self-archiving in digital repositories or on personal websites. The Open Access movement aims at improving the dissemination of scientific information.

"Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions." Suber's Open Access Overview

"By 'open access' to this literature, we mean it's free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited." Budapest Open Access Initiative

PDF - Portable Document Format. This format for 2-dimentional documents was created by Adobe Systems in 1993. PDF is an open standard that was officially published on July 1, 2008 by the ISO as ISO 32000-1:2008. As such, PDF files are considered more appropriate for archiving (as in a repository). More information on PDF's can be found at PDFzone.

Peer reviewed - Subjecting an author's work, research or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field.

Persistent URL - A persistent URL or link is a web address that will consistently point to a specific information source.

Postprints - A scholarly article in its final form, after it has gone through the peer review/refereeing process. Publishers often distinguish between pre- and post-prints in their policies on self-archiving articles. Postprints are not the pdfs produced by the publishers, but may be a Word document or pdf produced by the author. Since additional changes may occur during the proofing process, postprints are not considered "the version of record" and thus are of lesser value than the published version of an article. See also the Sherpa definition.

Versions of papers after peer review, with revisions having been made. These include the publisher's version as it appears in the journal and any other version of the article as accepted for publication (non publisher version). Although the content of these versions are identical, the appearances are different.

Preprints - Documents in pre-publication status, such as a draft or version of an article, that have not yet been published, but may have been reviewed and accepted; submitted but with no publication decision; or intended for publication and being circulated for comment.

Published version - The form of the postprint that is copy-edited and formatted as it appears in the journal.

ROMEO Project www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo.php

A project that defined the archiving policies of publishers. Now part of SHERPA.

Self-archiving - Placing a copy of your work in a digital repository.

SHERPA/RoMEO - Database of the copyright transfer policies of academic publishers and their journals. www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo.php

*Use this site to find a summary of permissions that are normally given as part of each publisher's copyright transfer agreement. Searchable by publisher name or journal title.

SPARC - The Scholarly Publishing & Academic Resources Coalition

" an international alliance of academic and research libraries working to correct imbalances in the scholarly publishing system. Developed by the Association of Research Libraries, SPARC has become a catalyst for change. Its pragmatic focus is to stimulate the emergence of new scholarly communication models that expand the dissemination of scholarly research and reduce financial pressures on libraries" http://www.arl.org/sparc/index.shtml

URL - Uniform Resource Locator

URI - Uniform Resource Identifier

Working Paper - A working paper is often a record of a project's research activities or interim findings.


Many thanks to the University of Melbourne ePrints Repository team and the following sources for the content provided in this glossary

UMER http://www.lib.unimelb.edu.au/eprints/ Crossref http://www.crossref.org/02publishers/glossary.html

Scholarly communication glossary http://www.library.uiuc.edu/scholcomm/glossary.html

New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development Telecommunications glossary http://www.med.govt.nz/templates/MultipageDocumentPage____29673.aspx

Creating an Institutional Repository: LEADIRS Workbook http://www.dspace.org/implement/leadirs.pdf